As of the start of the 2018 school year, approximately 35个州的教师短缺. The dearth of qualified teachers, in part, results from teacher attrition—due to retirement, 不满，以及其他各种因素. The challenges faced by teachers and other personnel have become highlighted in news coverage of teacher walkouts, 罢工, 在全国范围内和抗议, with teachers demanding improvements in areas like salary, 教育资金, 员工水平, 以及设施的质量.
教师的参与度、满意度和保留率 have become important points of emphasis for many districts. We’ve found that districts use a combination of four strategies to attract and retain quality teachers to ensure classrooms are adequately staffed: Attracting quality candidates, 解决导致教师流失的因素, increasing focus on the connection between engagement and retention, and driving staff diversity have all emerged as areas for districts to improve in addressing teacher attrition.
84%的受调查学区确定 教师招聘 这是他们的三个首要任务之一, districts are expected to leverage a variety of factors to attract candidates for open teaching positions. A 2017 调查 of a nationally representative sample of more than 500 K-12 teachers asked educators 哪些地区应该采取不同的做法 to find and hire high-quality teachers; 26% replied that districts should offer more professional autonomy, 更大的尊重, 以及更好的工作条件, 而17%的人要求学校提供辅导, 支持, 和培训.
许多地区, 还有州议员, are now focusing on providing these benefits to improve recruitment and hiring; after its teacher walkout, 亚利桑那州签署了一项 教育拨款法案, 其中包括为支持人员增加资金, 新教材, 技术和基础设施升级. 地区——尤其是那些很难找到工作人员的地区.g., rural and urban)—will need to assess their recruiting strategies, 激励, and workplace culture to ensure that positions at their schools are as attractive as possible.
7%的教师计划这么做 退出这个行业 as soon as possible, teacher retention is a top focus for districts nationwide. 研究确定了 几种常见的因素 that influence a teacher’s decision to seek a position at a different school or leave the profession entirely, 包括低补偿, 准备和培训有限, 工作条件差. 区, 尤其是在城市里, not only lose meaningful educators due to retention challenges; each departing teacher can, 平均, 市区花费高达2万美元.
鉴于这些挑战, districts seek to understand staff needs and perceptions and evaluate the motivating factors driving teacher exit from their particular contexts. An 教育周 调查 of educators clarifies key factors influencing whether teachers stay with or leave their current professions: 18% requested improved leadership 支持, 17%受访者表示考虑薪资, 17%的人认为改善了学校环境. 通过关注教师的需求, districts can better able to retain staff at a time when open positions are becoming increasingly harder to fill.
A significant factor influencing teachers’ retention is their level of engagement with their daily work. 只有 34%的教师表示他们很投入 with their job, while 46% of K-12 teachers report high daily stress during the school year. Disengagement does not just affect low performers—high-performing educators are just as likely to quit their jobs, making employee engagement a necessary focus for districts moving forward. 地区可以 加强教师参与 by listening to and incorporating teachers’ requests into school policy, 提供培训和发展机会, and collaborating together to co-design district-wide initiatives.
除了, district and school leaders are looking for avenues to expand teachers’ opportunities for leadership, 协作, 决策, 和创新. 从2013-2014学年开始，丹佛的学校已经开始 提高差异化教师角色 with goals such as providing teacher coaching and growth, 加强合作, 增加点对点的知识共享. Ninety-eight percent of the initiative’s 团队 Leads report believing they have grown as leaders while in their roles; similar programs also report increased teacher engagement due to expanded teacher leadership roles. Such opportunities can help teachers pursue areas of interest and leverage their strengths while positively impacting their students and schools.
根据政府数据，大约 80%的教师是白人，非西班牙裔, representing a tremendous disparity with the racial and ethnic demographics of today’s K-12 student population. 非裔美国人和拉丁裔男性教师 are in particularly short supply to teach the increasingly diverse public school population, 自2014年以来，有色人种的孩子占多数. 此外，还有黑人和西班牙裔教师 以较低的税率保住他们的工作 比白人老师, in part due to the challenges experienced in schools with higher rates of poverty, 他们主要从事于此.
在未来的几年里, diversifying teaching staff will be a top priority for districts to tap into the numerous benefits of a diverse workforce. 教师的多样性让学生的肤色 看他们种族的代表 among the leaders in their lives, experience fewer cultural differences in their learning, and 取得更大的学生成绩—numerous studies have found improvements in math and reading achievements among students who were taught by same-race teachers. 除了, diverse teaching staff provide unique perspectives that white students may not encounter in their daily lives, 告知他们的学习和世界观. 地区可以 推动员工多样性 through initiatives such as developing inclusive admissions policies, 增加获得高质量教师培训的机会, encouraging legislators to offer programs encouraging more students of color to pursue teaching careers, 并提供持续的指导和支持.